Cook edamame in a 3-quart pot of boiling salted water for 5 minutes. Drain the edamame in a colander and rinse under cold running water to stop the cooking. Drain edamame again and pat dry.
Whisk together the zest, vinegar, sugar, salt, and pepper in a small bowl until sugar and salt are dissolved. Add the oil in a slow stream, whisking until combined.
Toss together the edamame, escarole, mesclun, and mint in a large bowl. Add the Pecorino cheese, drizzle the salad with dressing, and then toss again.