Short ribs are another cut of beef that lends itself to long, slow braising to develop mouthwatering flavors as the meat fibers break down and become melted and tender.
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.
Season the short ribs generously with the kosher salt. Lay them side by side in a large, heavy roasting pan. Scatter the chiles de árbol, onion, carrot, and bay leaf on top of the meat. In a small bowl, stir together the vinegar, wine, brown sugar, and garlic and pour over the short ribs.
In a separate bowl, whisk the tamarind paste and hot water together to dissolve it a little. Combine with the vinegar-wine liquid and pour into the pan. The liquid should come about ¾ of the way up the sides of the short ribs. Add more water, if necessary.
Cover the pan tightly with foil and again with a second layer of foil. Transfer the pan to the oven and braise the ribs until the meat falls apart when poked with a fork, 3-3 ½ hours, removing the foil to check that it is tender. Carefully remove the ribs to a platter, cover, and set aside at room temperature.
Strain the liquid through a fine strainer into a large container. Chill for at least 1 hour so the fat rises to the top and forms a solid chunk; remove and discard. In a large, deep skillet over high heat, bring the braising liquid to a boil and reduce to about 4 cups.
Return the short ribs to the pan, reduce the heat to medium-low, and simmer until the ribs start to be glazed with the sauce, turning them with a pair of tongs so they become glazed and sticky, 20-25 minutes. Keep warm. Remove from the heat, pull the meat off the bones, and tear into large chunks.