Roasting the herb-rubbed turkey with apples and shallots is the secret to flavorful meat. Extra shallots in the roasting pan give the gravy a rich, caramelized shallot flavor.
Position a rack in the lower third of the oven and preheat to 475 degrees.
Remove the giblets and neck from the turkey cavities and reserve for making stock. Place the turkey, breast side up, on a rack in a large roasting pan and pat dry with paper towels.
Combine the oil, chopped parsley, chopped sage, chopped thyme, salt, and pepper in a small bowl. Rub the herb mixture all over the turkey, under the skin, and onto the breast meat.
Place the herb sprigs, 6 shallot halves, and apple in the cavity. Tuck the wing tips under the turkey. Tie the legs together with kitchen string. Add the water to the pan. Roast the turkey until the skin is golden brown, 45 minutes.
Remove the turkey from the oven. If using a remote digital thermometer, insert it into the deepest part of the thigh, close to the joint.
Cover just the breast with a double layer of foil, cutting as necessary to fit. Scatter the remaining shallots in the pan around the turkey. Reduce the oven temperature to 350 degrees and continue roasting until the thermometer (or an instant-read thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the thigh without touching bone) registers 165 degrees, 1-1 ¾ more hours. If the pan dries out, tilt the turkey to let juices run out of the cavity into the pan and add 1 cup water.
Transfer the turkey to a serving platter, reserve the pan juices and shallots, and tent with foil. Let the turkey rest for 20 minutes. Remove the string and carve.