1. By bartender Professor Jerry Thomas of San Francisco for a stranger on his way to Martinez. Made with gin, vermouth, bitters, dash of maraschino.
2. By a bartender in Martinez, California, for a gold miner who struck it rich. The miner ordered champagne for the house, but there was none. The bartender offered something better, a "Martinez Special." The rich miner spread the word, ordering a "Martinez Special" throughout California.
3. After the British army rifle: The Martini and Henry. The rifle was known for its kick, like the first sip of gin and "it" ("it" being vermouth.)
4. After Martini and Rossi Vermouth, because it was first used in the drink half and half with gin.
5. At the Knickerbocker Hotel in the early 1900s, a bartender named Martini di Arma Tiggia mixed a Martini using only a dry gin and dry vermouth.